Leadership in Graduate Education since 1847
Established by an act of the Yale Corporation in August 1847, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences was originally called the “Department of Philosophy and the Arts” and enrolled eleven students who had completed four-year undergraduate degrees. The program offered seminars in chemistry and metallurgy, agricultural science, Greek and Latin literature, mathematics, philology, and Arabic. The faculty consisted of two full-time science professors, Benjamin Silliman Jr. and John P. Norton, and five Yale College faculty members who offered advanced courses in their subject areas. This was the first program at Yale to focus on research and scholarship. Professional training was already being offered in medicine (1810), theology (1822), and law (1824).
The birthplace of doctoral education in the United States - 1861 First PhD
At Commencement in 1861, Yale University awarded the first three Ph.D. degrees, not only at Yale, but in the United States. The University of Pennsylvania followed in 1870; Harvard, in 1872; and Princeton, in 1879. The Yale graduate programs continued to grow, although they would not be named a separate graduate school until 1892. The Graduate School's purpose was “to give instruction of the most advanced grade, chiefly or largely by means of training in research and in scientific method.” (Pierson, p. 40)
Leadership in graduate diversity - Yale awards first Ph.D. in US to an African American (1876) and Yale women receive Ph.D.s (1894)
In 1876 Edward Alexander Bouchet (Yale College Class of 1874) was the first African American to earn a Ph.D. in the United States. His degree was the sixth doctorate in physics ever awarded in that field.
In 1892, women were admitted into the Graduate School as students in full standing, and in 1894, Elizabeth Deering Hanscom and six others were the first seven women to earn a Yale Ph.D. Deering and her fellow women PhD graduates that year went on to long and distinguished careers. Deering was professor of English and American literature at Smith College. Women were not admitted into Yale College until 1969.
The Graduate School is officially created - 1892
In 1892, the Department of Philosophy was officially renamed the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and Arthur Twining Hadley was appointed dean. Hadley later became Yale's 13th president. In 1920, the Graduate School was assigned its own governing board, and under Dean Wilbur Lucius Cross (1916-1930), it attracted a large and distinguished faculty.
A home for the Graduate School at HGS - 1932 - 2015
The Hall of Graduate Studies (HGS) was built between 1930 and 1932. Designed by James Gamble Rogers, the building is in the scholastic gothic style, with whimsical and emblematic decorative details, stained glass windows, and ornamented ceilings. Dean Cross, who long argued for building a home for graduate school in the center of the Yale campus, noted that building a Hall of Graduate Studies would make the “Invisible Graduate School … visible to all.”
Growth and innovation continue to today
In 1996, the McDougal Graduate Student Center was established in the Hall of Graduate Studies, thanks to the generosity and vision of Alfred McDougal '53 and his wife Nancy Lauter. Through this new Center, the Graduate School enhanced its student services, adding professional staff and student fellows in McDougal offices of the Graduate Teaching Center, Graduate Career Services, and Student Life. A Graduate Writing Center and a cooperating Office for Diversity and Equal Opportunity were added in later years to serve student needs. The Graduate Student Assembly, the official student government representing all GSAS students, was established in 1997.
Doctoral programs became fully funded in the 1990s, offering admitted Ph.D. students full tuition fellowships, competitive stipends, excellent healthcare coverage, and an increasing range of student services and policies, including parental relief, to assist them in their studies, lives and careers. In the 21st century, with outstanding research faculty and degree programs, supportive student services, and the growing attractiveness of New Haven as a place to live, applications for admission to Yale GSAS reached record levels, with over 11,000 applications for approximately 600 student slots.
In 2015, the Graduate School Dean's and administrative offices moved from HGS to Warner House at 1 Hillhouse Avenue, to work more closely with the Dean of the Faculty of Arts & Sciences, also in Warner house, and the Dean of Yale College next door in SSS. The McDougal Graduate Student Center and Graduate Student Life offices will remain at HGS, as do all official GSAS public functions like Orientation, Dean's Events and Commencement. Eventually the McDougal Center will be relocated when HGS closes for full renovations.
*For more on the history of the Graduate School, see Edgar S. Furniss, 1965. The Graduate School at Yale: A Brief History. New Haven, CT; and Wilbur L. Cross, 1943. A Connecticut Yankee: An Autobiography.